Persian men culture towards dating women
Recent discoveries confirm an expectation that the imperial iconography developed at Persepolis and Susa was exported to the regional capitals (cf. ) Artaxerxes I from Daskyleion with the king enthroned surrounded by attendants confirms the probable role of glyptic in circulating Persian visual concepts (AMI 22, 1989, p. 1." href="/img/v11f3/Greece_ii_plate01.jpg"PLATE I; Kaptan; for some implications for visual communication, see Root).Seidl): the Achaemenid-style procession relief sculptures at Medancıkkale, Cilicia (Davesne and Laroche-Traunecker), and the cloth-bearing processants painted in a tomb at Harta in Lydia (Özgen and Öztürk, p. For three generations in the Archaic period and again in the 4th century B. E., the Greek cities of Western Anatolia were part of the Persian Empire, although they never lost contact with the states of mainland Greece (Debord).Intensified excavation in Turkey and restudy of finds from older excavations now affirm a significant Persian presence in Anatolia (Sekunda, 1985, 1988, and 1991).Much is the indirect evidence of instances of local acculturation (for details see below).The evidence for Persian presence in Anatolia shows that East Greeks must have known Persians well; indeed, almost all of the known Greeks who spoke Persian come from this region (Miller, pp. Excavated ceramics verify that trade between the Greek world and Persian-held Asia Minor (and the Levant) continued throughout the period, showing no hint of a negative impact from military or other tensions.This evidence comes from the satrapal centers Daskyleion (Tuna-Nörling, 1998, pp. B881; East Greek animal-head cups appear to be close imitations rather than adaptations). The importance of the hypostyle hall in Achaemenid Persian architecture, and its comparatively rare appearance in Greek architecture, makes any hypostyle hall in Greece suspected of Persian influence.It is often difficult to identify traces in the material culture record of acculturation to the new Persian power in Anatolia; this difficulty can be attributed largely to the accidents of survival and the extent to which over-building in major East Greek cities has made untouched late archaic and classical strata rare, and need not be ascribed to resistance on the part of this already heterogenous society. the dramatic employment of terraces at Achaemenid Sardis and now Daskyleion, possibly emulating such capitals as Susa and Persepolis). occasionally presents Achaemenid motifs, whose precise meaning is unclear, but assuredly their function was to stress allegiance; the coinage commenced after the Persian conquest, perhaps in response to the need to submit tribute (Konuk). The various structures and dynastic tombs of Xanthos show a profound and meaningful mixture of Persian iconography and Greek style overlaying a Lycian architectural core. At various points the coins incorporate Persian motifs such as a walking lion-griffin on the coinage of Kprlli (ca. Franz Altheim, Ruth Stiehl, and Marielouise Cremer, “Eine gräko-persische Türstele mit aramäischer Inschrift aus Daskyleion,” , Actes de la table ronde internationale d’Istanbul, May 22-23, Varia Anatolica 12, Istanbul and Paris, 2000, pp. Idem, “On the Satrapal Center in North-western Asia Minor: Some Evidence from the Seal Impressions of Ergili/Daskyleion,” in Tomris Bakır et al., eds, , Forschungen zur antiken Keramik, Kerameus 3, Mainz, 1981. Miller-Collett and Margaret Cool Root, “An Achaemenid Seal fom the Lower City,” , Boreas 17, Uppsala, 1989, pp. Pontus Hellström, “Architecture, Characteristic Building-Types and Peculiarities of Style and Technique: Possible Implications for Hellenistic Architecture,” in Jacob Isager, ed., , Ausonius Publications Études 3, Bordeaux, 1999. By and large, however, the implements figured more in private life than public ceremonial; equally important is the increased use of specialized slaves reflected in their use (Miller, 1997, pp. Literary evidence reveals that peacock-raising was introduced to Athens in the second half of the 5th century (evidently as the result of a gift of Artaxerxes I to one Pyrilampes, who served as Athenian ambassador), serving to expand the range of prestigious animal-breeding well beyond the horse, where it had been limited for centuries (Miller, 1997, pp. , Beiträge zur Altertumskunde 108, Stuttgart and Leipzig, 1998. The two centuries of Persian presence in Anatolia could not alter the basic structures which were already akin but evidently resulted there in an enriched iconographic vocabulary and encouraged an on-going process of homogenization.
Such “Iranizing” both reinforces the evidence for a Persian presence and provides a background for cultural relations with Greece.
Anatolia can be regarded as an interculturation zone through which much of Greek perception of Persians was filtered until the conquests of Alexander focused Greek atten-tion more on the Levant and Mesopotamia.
The most striking instances of receptivity in the Greek world, as in the North Aegean and Anatolia, are responses to luxury toreutic; the Achaemenid deep and shallow bowls were particularly imitated in metal and ceramic throughout most of the lands in question.
Nonetheless, enough now survives from excavation and repatriated tomb materials to show that Sardis (and Lydia) under the Persians was highly acculturated to the Achaemenid model (Dusinberre, 2002). Although no Old Persian inscriptions have yet been found at Sardis, Aramaic is well represented. The unique tomb at Taş Kule near Phokaia has Persian elements, suggesting that it was either for a Persian from early in the period, or for an Achaemenidizing local leader (Cahill). Neither Daskyleion nor Sardis can be said to show greater receptivity to East Greek culture. Alexander the Great is said by the sources to have learned much from the Persians that he conquered (e.g., Court protocol: Curtius, 8.5.5-24, Plutarch, 45, Arrian, 4.9.9). Susanne Ebbinghaus, “Between Greece and Per-sia: Rhyta in Thrace from the Late 5th to the Early 3rd Centuries B. The following is organised from most to least tangible. The most long-lived contribution of Achaemenid toreutic to the Greek repertoire was the use of fluting, grooving, and petal-grooving as surface decorations (PLATE IX; Athens, Agora Excavations, Inv. P18288 [left] and P 10980); they had hitherto been largely unknown in the archaic Greek tradition and became a permanent, if not a universal, component. It is not clear whether they were imported or a local imitation (Arvanitopoulos; Dentzer, 1969, pp. It has been argued that the Athenian acropolis as a whole represents a deliberate mid-5th-century response to the Persian imperial center at Persepolis (Lawrence). Nonetheless, iconographic and epigraphic evidence indicate that a number of foreign clothing types entered the wardrobe of the elite Athenian women and occasionally men in the 5th century B. The specific garments that can be identified include the , a tunic-like overgarment, worn by women over their chiton, and by men over a short chiton or alone (the patterned garment on PLATE XIII, Bologna Musico civico, Inv. The sleeved chiton contrasts strikingly with the Greek clothing repertoire, where anything like tailoring is anathema (garments were worn as removed from the loom, with the addition of pins and belts to secure them). The Persian , though rarely attested in art for Athenian wear, figures prominently in the votive offerings by Athenian women of used clothing at the sanctuary of Artemis of Brauron (PLATE XIII, above; Linders; Knauer, pp. Nonetheless, the preference for elaborately decorated textiles in the later 5th century Attic red figure painting has been linked with a new taste for “foreign textiles” as a result of trade and booty in this period (von Lorentz; Miller, 1997, pp. The extent to which physical luxury pertained in classical Athens is a matter of some debate, but despite the claims of ancient authors and the general silence of the archeological record, there is evidence to suggest that the Persian East provided models for new mechanisms of expression of social hierarchy in classical Athens, and perhaps elsewhere in mainland Greece as well.
Possible evidence for intermarriage can later be found in the mixture of Lydian, Greek, and Persian names on a 4th-century list of residents of Sardis (the “sacrilege inscription”: Hanfmann; cf. Evidence for Zoroastrian funerary ritual at Gelenbe in western Lydia has been claimed (L’vov-Basirov). The first traces of Persian presence in Daskyleion (Ergili) appear in the late 6th century B. There is now evidence for Milesian marble-workers at Daskyleion in the late archaic period, which points to a rich cultural mix at the site (Bakır, 1997, p. Epigraphical evidence shows the use of Aramaic, Lydian, and Greek in addition to Phrygian, and sealings bear Old Persian and Babylonian inscriptions (Bakır, 2001). E., a horizontally-fluted glass beaker, two silver deep bowls, and two silver phialai (Ignatiadou; Themelis and Touratsoglou, Cat. B 45, B12-13 and B18-19); and from Pydna a gem and a conoidal stamp seal (Paspalas, 2000b, n. A Persian-type horse bit was excavated at Olynthos (Donder, p. Iconographically, the most telling indication is the report that in his funeral cortege was suspended a representation of Alexander enthroned and holding a sceptre, surrounded by Macedonian and Persian guards (Diodorus, 18.26.3); this may owe something to Perso-Anatolian funerary practice as well as to the Achaemenid imperial vision (Root, p. The extent to which Macedon responded to Persian material culture before Alexander, inspired perhaps by diplomatic gifts and the regalia of high-status exiles, remains less clear (Barr-Sharrar, 1986; Themelis and Touratsoglou, pp. An Achaemenid glass phiale from the Sanctuary of Demeter at Dion with a deposi-tion date of the 5th century verifies that Achaemenid goods did earlier make their way to Macedon (Ignatiadou p. Macedonian emulation of the Achaemenid deep bowl in silver had evidently begun already by the mid-4th century (Pfrommer pp. Indeed, Perso-Anatolian monumental tomb practice has been thought to have contributed to the monumentalization of Macedonian tombs at a crucial period (Paspalas, 2000b, p. The receptivity to Achaemenid Persia is manifested in discrete spheres of production, doubtless a reflection of the modes of contact and the specific range of cultural values implied: luxury toreutic, textiles, imperial imagery. The clearest evidence of Greek receptivity to the material culture of the Achaemenid Empire comes from ceramic material, most especially fine ware fabrics with a plain black gloss finish. Some derivative surface treatments are also visible in Boeotian and Elean (Peloponnesos) wares. Moreover, the frieze around the cella of the Parthenon, with its timeless rendering of the Panathenaic festival procession, both in entire conception and in occasional detail, is sometimes compared with Persian procession friezes, though its rich multivalency precludes a single line of interpretation (Kyrieleis, pp. Attested both in epigraphical sources and iconographically from about 440, they must reflect a foreign, possibly Persian, garment (PLATE XIV, Paris, Musée du Louvre, Inv. The traditional Greek economy relied largely on subsistence agriculture, with some assistance from trade based on a range of manufactured goods.